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carbon dioxide

Capture efficiency of air curtain assisted residential range hoods

Air curtain assisted range hoods are very customary in large industrial kitchens. They allow to increase the capture efficiency of the range hood while lowering the net exhaust flow rate. For applications in residential settings, there is a lack of data on the performance of air curtain assisted range hoods, as well as a lack of information on the required settings and boundary conditions to come to the successful application of air curtain assisted range hoods.

Effects of Carbon Dioxide With and Without Bioeffluents on humans

Carbon dioxide (CO2) has traditionally been assumed innocuous at the typical levels indoors, and merely an indicator of metabolic emissions from humans (bioeffluents). Recent studies suggest that exposure to pure CO2 at concentrations of 2,500 to 4,000 ppm, the levels that occur periodically indoors, can have negative effects on mental performance in form of reduced ability for making decisions, typing and proofreading. Present study aimed to examine further these effects. Twenty-five human subjects were exposed to elevated CO2 with and without bioeffluents in a chamber.

Indoor Carbon Dioxide Concentrations in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Standards

Indoor carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations have played a role in discussions of ventilation and indoor air quality (IAQ) since the 18th century. Those discussions have evolved over the years to focus on the impacts of CO2 concentrations on building occupants, how these concentrations relate to occupant perception of bioeffluents, the use of indoor CO2 concentrations to estimate ventilation rates, and CO2–based demand control ventilation. This paper reviews how indoor CO2 has been dealt with in ventilation and IAQ standards in the context of these issues.

Impact of the new rite 2013 (regulation on thermal installation) on indoor air quality

This paper presents a comparison of Indoor Air Quality in several buildings constructed prior to the implementation of the new Spanish regulation on thermal installations (RITE, 2007 modified on 2013) and some new ones that fully accomplish the requirements of this new regulation.

CO2 and volatile organic compounds as indicators of IAQ

The trend toward minimizing ventilation of houses in order to reduce energy consumption for heating and cooling leads to an increase in indoor air pollution. The deterioration of indoor air quality (IAQ) negatively affects human health, safety, productivity and comfort. In order to evaluate the scale of this influence IAQ assessment has to be performed. However, the IAQ itself is not well defined and a number of parameters are considered as its indicators. In this work we compared carbon dioxide and volatile organic compounds as indicators of indoor air quality.

Carbon Dioxide Concentrations and Humidity Levels Measured in Belgian Standard and Low Energy Dwellings with Common Ventilation Strategies

One of the most commonly used strategies to reduce the heating demand in low energy buildings is reducing the leakage level of the building envelope. Dedicated ventilation systems are then installed to compensate for the reduced air change rate in an energy efficient way. Most occupants, however, operate their ventilation system at very low flow rates. Together with the emission of bio-effluents, linked to the presence of the occupants, moisture production related to household activities is one of the most important sources of indoor air pollution in dwellings.

Air Change Rate Measurements using Tracer Gas Carbon Dioxide from Dry Ice

Air change rate is often used as an important characteristic of indoor environmental quality, which significantly impacts human health. However, easy, effective, real-time and low-cost air change rate measurements in naturally ventilated resident buildings are still a huge challenge. This paper presents a method based on the release of a stable rate of the tracer gas CO2 given off by solid CO2 (dry ice) in an insulated box.  In theory, the dry ice will sublime at a constant rate as long as there is sufficient dry ice in the box.

Derivation of equation for personal carbon dioxide in exhaled breath intended to estimation of building ventilation

Carbon dioxide included in exhaled breath is often used as a tracer gas when estimation of ventilation aspect in buildings with occupants is performed. Carbon dioxide produced by occupants is the key for the estimation. JIS A 1406 and ASTM D6245-12 refer personal carbon dioxide production rate. However JIS does not take into account personal attribute like as body height and weight. On the other hand, ASTM does not take into account gender difference and based on average westerner adult data.

Occupancy estimation based on CO2 concentration using dynamic neural network model

Demand-controlled ventilation has been proposed to improve indoor air quality and to save energy for ventilation. It is important to estimate occupancy in a building precisely in order to determine adequate ventilation airflow rates, especially when people are the major source of indoor contaminants such as in office buildings. In this paper, we investigate occupancy estimation methods using a dynamic neural network model based on carbon dioxide concentration in a space.