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Cold comfort: thermal satisfaction in academia

This paper presents preliminary data on a series of building comfort experiments conducted in the field. We performed physical in-situ measurements and solicited responses from university students in six different classrooms at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst during three seasons (fall, winter and spring). Our questions focused on the students’ perception of comfort in varied environmental (temperature and humidity, and air speed) conditions. We collected records of the students’ academic performance in the classes, correlating their comfort perceptions to their test scores.

Estimation of annual energy loss by indoor air mixing

Excess energy consumption of HVAC system is not usually noticed without the dissatisfaction to thermal environment. Recently it has become easier to discover it in buildings with the aid of Building Energy Management System (BEMS). Indoor Air Mixing loss occurs in an office when the perimeter zone is heated by one HVAC system and the interior zone is cooled by the other system. The aim of this study is the quantitative analysis of the mixing energy loss in office buildings. Experiments are conducted in a full-size experiment room.

Energy and financial impact of poor air tightness in existing residential buildings

The improvement of air tightness in existing residential buildings could be triggered from the desire for better indoor comfort conditions and the expected reduction of cost for space heating. While the improvement of comfort sensation could not be easily understood from the building owner, the reduction of cost for space heating is much easier.

Analysis of life cycle energy consumption and environmental load of insulation design for residential buildings in China

Increasing insulation thickness may reduce the energy consumption and environmental load in building operation phase, but may also increase those in insulation production phase. Therefore, the life cycle energy consumption and environmental load of insulation design for a typical residential building were analyzed in this paper. Cases in four typical cities -Harbin, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou- in four different climate zones in China were compared.

Retro-commissioning of a heat source system in a district heating and cooling system

To improve the energy performance of a district heating and cooling (DHC) plant, the expected performance of the plant was studied using simulations based on mathematical models. A model of the entire heat source system with an embedded module that automatically determines the on/off status of heat source equipment using cooling/heating loads was developed and validated using measured actual performance data. The mean error between the simulated and measured total energy consumption was 4.2%.

Prediction of Energy Efficiency and Thermal Environment of Residential Buildings Utilizing PEFC-CGS Combined Floor Heating System

The systematic numerical simulation program is developed to calculate the total energy efficiency of housing polymer electrolyte fuel cell co-generation system (PEFC-CGS) which is combined with hot water floor heating (HWFH). This simulation program can also predict actual building physics of heat transfer such as mutual radiant heat among interior surfaces and thermal strage relating with piping pitch of hot water and so on. The indoor temperature can be controlled by PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) to take account of thermal sensing affected radiant heat.

An Energy Efficient Air Conditioning System using Displacement Ventilation and Chilled Ceiling for Modern Office Buildings

Thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) play a vital role in creating a pleasant and healthier indoor environment for occupants. The supply air conditions and the concentration of CO2 contaminant present in the supply air can decide the comfort level and purity of air in indoor environments. In this study, an effort was made to investigate the combined effect of a chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation (CC-DV) air conditioning (A/C) system that would possibly achieve good thermal comfort and IAQ in a proposed office building subjected to hot and humid climatic conditions.

ENERGY CONSERVATION OF WINDOW SYSTEMS IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS OF HOT SUMMER AND COLD WINTER ZONE IN CHINA

Heat gain through the exterior window accounts for 25-28% of the total heat gain, adding to theinfiltration, it is up to 40 % in hot summer and cold winter zone of china, so it is important to carry outthe sustainable window systems design with low energy consumption. The effects of window systemsincluding area ratio of window to wall and categories of glazing on energy consumption of airconditioner (AC) are simulated by using eQUEST software.

CASE STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF ENERGY INTERCHANGE AMONG BUILDINGS

The results of a case study are presented focusing on efforts to conserve energy in an existing cityblock by physically connecting a number of existing buildings with pipes and cables and aCogeneration System (CGS), and then exchange energy among the buildings using the CGS andexisting heat source equipment. Essentially, the proposed system levels-out and reduces variation inthe combined inter-building energy load among the buildings with a variety of energy use profiles.

A LARGE COMPLEX BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION CASE STUDY IN JAPAN

The Shinjuku Park Tower building is a large building complex built in Tokyo in1993 that includes officespace, a shopping zone, and a hotel.

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