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Occupants’ behaviours in controlling blinds in UK primary schools

The environmental conditions experienced in UK schools not only influence the effectiveness of teaching and learning but also affect energy consumption and occupant behaviour plays a critical role in determining such conditions.

A window opening algorithm and uk office temperature: field results and thermal simulation

This investigation of the window opening data from extensive field surveys in UK office buildings investigates 1) how people control the indoor environment by opening windows, 2) the cooling potential of opening windows, and 3) the use of an “adaptive algorithm” for predicting window opening behaviour for thermal simulation in ESP-r. We found that the mean indoor and outdoor temperatures when the window was open were higher than when it was closed, but show that nonetheless there was a useful cooling effect from opening a window.

Comfort driven adaptive window opening behavior and the influence of building design

It is important to understand and model the behaviour of occupants in buildings and how this behaviour impacts energy use and comfort. It is similarly important to understand how a buildings design affects occupant comfort, occupant behaviour and ultimately the energy used in the operation of the building. In this work a behavioural algorithm for window opening developed from field survey data has been implemented in a dynamic simulation tool. The algorithm is in alignment with the proposed CEN standard for adaptive thermal comfort.

A Three-Dimensional Numerical Study of Convective Heat Transfer from a Window with a Venetian Blind

This paper studies in three-dimension the coupled convective and radiative heat transfer rate from awindow surface with adjacent venetian blind using a commercial CFD code. For this study the window surface was modeled as an isothermal vertical flat plate. The flow patterns (temperature and velocity fields) and convective heat transfer coefficient were investigated for different blade angles (00, 450, -450, 800). Comparisons were made with experimental and other theoretical research.

Performance Potential of a Whole House Low Energy Ventilation System Predicted from the Outcome of a European Programme of Testing

The problem of achieving good air quality in dwellings whilst saving energy has led to a number of solutions many involving the use of fan power. This paper describes a programme of testing, that has continued over the last three years, of a passive low energy ventilation system. The systems components are supply air window in combination with passive stack vents. Installations have been monitored in unoccupied dwellings in Poland, Denmark and Ireland and user feedback is now being collected, the units now being occupied.

An analytical model for the airflow in a ventilated window with known surface temperatures

This paper presents an analytical model for predicting the air flow and velocity in an open vertical air channel due to natural convection. It can be used in the study of ventilated windows and double-faade systems, which are arousing interest as an energy-efficient means of providing fresh air, daylight and solar radiation to rooms. Unlike most previous work in this field, it proceeds from known surface temperatures instead of known surface heat flux.

Operable windows, personal control and occupant comfort

Past research (ASHRAE RP-884) demonstrated that occupants of naturally ventilated buildings are comfortable in a wider range of temperatures than occupants of buildings with centrally controlled HVAC systems. However, the exact influence of personal control in explaining these differences could only be hypothesized because of the limits of the existing field study data that formed the basis of that research. The objective of ASHRAE RP-1161 was to quantitatively investigate how

A Study of a Mixed Mode Environment in 25 Cellular Offices at the University of Sydney

Twenty five cellular offices in the Wilkinson Building at the University of Sydney, Australia are ventilated through operable windows and doors and have been retrofitted with a supplementary reverse cycle cooling/heating system with an occupant controlled fancoil unit in each room. Energy consumption and occupancy and temperature status of rooms have been monitored since the system was commissioned at the end of 1997.

Energy saving through the use of a supply air window

In Arctic and sub-Arctic climates, such as those in Scandinavia, multiple-glazing windows that consist of at least three panes are widely used. Typically, the replacement air for the extracted air, especially in low-cost accommodation with forced extraction, enters the interior space in the form of leakage flow through the window jambs and the walls or through the supply air vents. The temperature for the air entering the room is close to that of the outdoor air, which may cause a sensation of draft.

Natural ventilation for office buildings cooling

In the 1990's, concern about global warming has resulted in a resurgence of interest in naturally ventilated offices. The Belgian climate is particularly well adapted to apply cooling by natural ventilation. Indeed, except for a few hours a year, outdoor air temperature is lower than indoors. Lots of office buildings have no atrium or chimney to benefit from any stack ventilation. But natural ventilation can nevertheless be organized with only frontage windows either by single-sided ventilation or by cross ventilation.

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