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Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

A selection of papers published in respect to ventilation and IAQ by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

A selection of papers published in respect to ventilation and IAQ by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

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Cooking and cooking burners emit pollutants that can adversely affect indoor air quality in residences and significantly impact occupant health.

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Whole-house ventilation systems are becoming commonplace in new construction, remodeling/renovation, and weatherization projects, driven by combinations of specific requirements for indoor air qual

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ASHRAE Standard 62 | 2 | california title 24 | passive ventilation | residential ventilation | ventilation controller

The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20%, maintain or improve indoor air q

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ASHRAE Standard 62 | 2 | california title 24 | residential ventilation | ventilation controller

We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ).

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resave

The installed performance of cooking exhaust fans was evaluated through residential field experiments conducted on a sample of 15 devices varying in design and other characteristics.

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Capture efficiency (CE) of exhaust from a natural gas cooking range was quantified for three  common designs of residential range hoods in laboratory experiments: (A) microwave exhaust combination;

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This study assessed the performance of seven new residential cooking exhaust hoods representing common U.S. designs.

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The performance metrics of airflow, sound, and combustion product capture efficiency (CE) were measured for a convenience sample of fifteen cooking exhaust devices, as installed in residences.

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The installed performance of cooking exhaust fans was evaluated through residential field experiments conducted on a sample of 15 devices varying in design and other characteristics.

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Cooking and cooking burners emit pollutants that can adversely affect indoor air quality in residences and significantly impact occupant health.

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Venting range hoods are important residential ventilation components that remove pollutants generated by cooking activities and natural gas cooking burners.

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Cooking of food and use of natural gas cooking burners generate pollutants that can have substantial impacts on residential indoor air quality.

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This report presents results from the first year of a two-year study, investigating associations of five air pollutants (CO, NO2, NOX, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) with the presence of natural ga

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Although the power law has been broadly accepted in measurement and air infiltration standards, and in many air infiltration calculation methods, the assumption that the power law is true over the

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This document compiles papers produced by staff and collaborators of the Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for presentation at the Indoor Air 2002 Conference, t

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indoor pollutants | ventilation | thermal comfort | energy | school

Dermal and non-dietary pathways are potentially significant exposure pathways to pesticides used in residences.

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pesticides | Exsure | Rsidential environments | Srfaces | Wallboard

Infiltration has traditionally been assumed to affect the energy load of a building by an amount equal to the product of the infiltration flow rate and the sensible enthalpy difference between insi

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A multidisciplinary team of IEQ and energy researchers is working together to define a program of priority energy-related IEQ research.

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IEQ research agenda | priorities | energy

An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the pressure drop characteristics of residential duct system components that are either not available or not thoroughly (sometimes incorrectly) descr

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A Best Practices Guide for retrofitting residential HVAC systems has recently been completed by DOE.

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To assess whether houses can meet performance expectations, the new practice of residential commissioning will likely use flow hoods to measure supply and return grille airflows in HVAC systems.

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Duct leakage is a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums, or branches in the duct system.

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UL 181 B-FX | air leakage | duct tape | ducts | durability | longevity

Most dwellings in the United States are ventilated primarily through leaks in the building shell (i.e., infiltration) rather than by whole-house mechanical ventilation systems.

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BlowerDoor | air leakage | ventilation | energy | fan pressurization | indoor air quality | infiltration | measurements

From the skyscrapers of Manhattan to the Victorian houses of San Francisco and the shopping malls of Anytown, USA, buildings in the U.S. are remarkable for their variety.

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The air leakage of a building envelope can be determined from fan pressurization measurements with a blower door. More than 70,000 air leakage measurements have been compiled into a database.

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Fan pressurization measurements | air leakage | blower door | infiltration

The major concern for HVAC's professionals is the engineering of indoor environments, but health and safety must be a primary concern too.

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ventilation rate | residential building | standard

In January 1999 ASHRAE's Standard Project Committee on "Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low-Rise Residential Buildings", SPC 62.2P, approved ASHRAE's first complete standard on res

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Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums or branches in the duct system.

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This best practices guide for residential HVAC system retrofits is aimed at contractors who want guidance on delivering energy efficient, cost effective and innovative products.

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This report summarizes the state of the art on building air tightness by reviewing the current and recent literature on both research and practice.

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air leakage | airtightness | fan pressurization | leakage area

Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums or branches in the duct system.

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component leakage | duct

This case study focusing on a residence in northern California was undertaken as a demonstration of the potential of a systems approach to HVAC retrofits.

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Building occupants are exposed to complex mixtures of air pollutants including many volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

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A number of interzonal models have been developed to calculate air flows and pollutant transport mechanisms in both single and multizone buildings.

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Contaminant transport | multizone air flow modelling

The proposed ASHRAE Standard 152P "Method of Test for Determining the Design and Seasonal Efficiencies of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems" (ASHRAE 2002) has recently completed its second p

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Many biologically active materials are transported as bioaerosols 1-10 µm in diameter. These particles can deposit on cooling and heating coils and lead to serious indoor air quality problems.

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Several studies (Francisco and Palmiter 1997 and 1999, Andrews et al. 1998, and Siegel et al.

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Residential air conditioning is responsible for a substantial amount of peak electrical demand and energy consumption throughout most of the United States.

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Previous studies (including earlier phases of this research project) have shown that losses from residential thermal distribution systems have significant energy and comfort implications.

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Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums or branches in the duct system.

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UL 181 B | air leakage | duct tape | ducts | durability | longevity

Mechanical ventilation may be necessary to provide adequate ventilation in new houses due to the relatively low rates of infiltration achieved in new construction.

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air change rate | dehumidification | formaldehyde | Manufactured house | relative humidity

Ducts that carry heated or cooled air are often internally lined with fiberglass for acoustic control and thermal insulation.

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Residential thermal distribution systems have significant energy and comfort implications due to losses from the distribution system in the form of leakage and conduction and poor distribution from

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We describe a novel modeling technique, based on Duhamel's theorem, to study the effects of time-varying winds on radon transport in soil near buildings.

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Radon transport | DuhamelÕs theorem | wind | Contaminant transport | indoor air quality | modeling | soil-gas transport

Energy losses from forced air distribution systems have a significant impact on the energy efficiency of buildings. Little work has been done to quantify these losses in apartment buildings.

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air sealing | apartment building | duct | insulation

The central aim of this project i s to provide knowledge and tools for increasing the energy efficiency and performance of new and existing laboratory-type facilities in California.

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energy efficiency | laboratory

    

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energy efficiency | laboratory

A multidisciplinary team of IEQ and energy researchers has defined a program of priority energy-related IEQ research.

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This report discusses the accuracy of flow hoods for residential applications, based on laboratory tests and field studies.

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This paper discusses the accuracy of commercially available flow hoods for residential applications.

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grading | airflow | measurement | residential building

Flow measurement at residential registers using flow hoods is becoming more common.

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Most air duct system components are assembled in the field and are mechanically fastened by sheet metal screws (for sheet metal-to-sheet metal) or by drawbands (for flex duct-to-sheet metal).

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Forced-air heating and cooling system ducts are often located outside conditioned space in US houses. For these systems to perform efficiently it is important that these ducts be well insulated.

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This paper deals with the quantification of the sealing effectiveness of slot- and joint-type leaks by aerosol deposits.

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Measurements on three gas and two electric furnaces have been made to examine the field performance of these furnaces and their interactions with their forced-air distribution systems.

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air leakage | conduction | duct system | furnace | measurement | standard

Explicit algebraic equations for calculation of wind and stack driven ventilation were developed by parametrically matching exact solutions to the flow equations for building envelopes.

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power-law | wind shelter | furnace flue | ventilation | infiltration | modeling

Explicit algebraic equations for calculation of wind and stack driven ventilation were developed by parametrically matching exact solutions to the flow equations for building envelopes.

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air infiltration | calculation techniques | wind effects

Traditionally, houses in the U.S. have been ventilated by passive infiltration in combination with active window opening.

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Emission factors | Non-occupational exposure guidelines | ventilation | formaldehyde | Houses

Fin and tube heat exchangers are used widely in residential, commercial and industrial HVAC applications. Invariably, indoor and outdoor air contaminants foul these heat exchangers.

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This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999.

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Infiltration has traditionally been assumed to contribute to the energy load of a building by an amount equal to the product of the infiltration flow rate and the enthalpy difference between inside

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load calculation | air leakage | envelope | heat recovery | infiltration | modeling | simulation

Indoor air quality (IAQ) in new houses, particularly occupant's inhalation exposure to toxic, irritant and odorous chemicals, has received comparatively little attention among house builders and pr

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Wood products | formaldehyde | furniture | indoor air quality | Manufactured house

Although furnaces, air conditioners and heat pumps have become significantly more efficient over the last couple of decades, residential air handlers have typical efficiencies of only 10% to 15% du

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In continuing the development of energy efficiency standards, consideration has turned to air handlers used for heating and air conditioning of consumer residences.

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Conventional calculations of heating (and cooling) loads for buildings assume that conduction heat loss (or gain) through walls is independent of air infiltration heat loss (or gain).

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Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify deficiencies or to co

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Benefits | diagnostics | metrics | retrofits | buildings | commissioning | energy | HVAC

In residential and light commercial construction in the United States, heating and cooling ducts are often located outside the thermal or pressure boundary of the conditioned space.

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This field study concentrated on measurement of duct leakage to outside the conditioned space because this is most useful in energy calculations, e.g., proposed ASHRAE Standard 152P (ASHRAE 1997).

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Performance of radon mitigation systems, including active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization and crawlspace isolation and ventilation, was monitored in 12 houses in the USA during 1

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field monitoring | radon

This report summarizes the results of two high temperature longevity tests conducted by the Energy Performance of Building Group (EPB).

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The initial solid-phase concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a key parameter influencing the emission characteristics of many indoor materials.

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LBNL - Proceedings of Indoor Air 2002 (9th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate) - June 30 - July 5, 2002 - Monterey, California - vol 1, pp 521-526, 3 figs, 10 refs","This pa

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air conditioning | heat exchanger | mathematical modelling | particle

A physically based diffusion model is used to evaluate the sink effect of diffusion-controlled indoor materials and to predict the transient contaminant concentration in indoor air in response to s

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Sorption | Volatile organic compounds | diffusion | emission | indoor air

Age of air is a technique for evaluating ventilation that has been actively used for over 20 years.

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air exchange rate | ventilation | indoor air quality | multizone

This report summarizes the potential for new technologies for ducts, duct fittings, and insulation.

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This paper describes the concept of using simulation as a tool for performance validation and energy analysis of HVAC systems.

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The commissioning-related system and house performance improvements and energy savings translate to additional benefits throughout California and beyond.

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In this report, we describe what residential commissioning is, its characteristic elements, and how one might structure its process.

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A model for predicting the rate at which a volatile organic compound (VOC) is emitted from a diffusion- controlled material is validated for three contaminants (n-pentadecane, n-tetradecane, and ph

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Basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air.

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Residential commissioning is a new procedure to ensure that a house can perform optimally or at least meet basic safety, health, comfort, and energy intents.

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The literature review reported here is the first step in a larger 30 month-long project that will lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy

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The role of ventilation in the housing stock is to provide fresh air and to dilute internally-generated pollutants in order to assure adequate indoor air quality.

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Airflow measurement techniques are necessary to determine the most basic of indoor air quality questions: "Is there enough fresh air to provide a healthy environment for the occupants of the buildi

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Duct losses have a significant effect on the efficiency of delivering space cooling to U.S. homes.

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ASHRAE Standard 62.2P is being proposed to address residential ventilation issues.

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ventilation strategy | standard

This study was performed in order to find suitable efficiency and leakage specifications for Energy Star duct systems and provide recommendations on duct insulation specifications.

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In many parts of North America residential HVAC systems are installed outside conditioned space.

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Formaldehyde, less-volatile aldehydes, and terpene hydrocarbons are generally the predominant air contaminants in new manufactured and site-built houses.

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Source reduction | Wood products | aldehydes | emissions | formaldehyde | Houses

Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums or branches in the duct system.

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This paper characterizes ventilation in residential suites located in ten buildings in major metropolitan areas of Canada.

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ASHRAE Standard 152P (Method of Test for Determining the Design and Seasonal Efficiencies of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems) includes default values for many of the input parameters requi

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The DeltaQ test has been developed in order to provide better estimates of forced air system air leakage for use in energy efficiency calculations and for compliance testing of duct systems.

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The role of ventilation in the housing stock is to provide fresh air and to dilute internally-generated pollutants in order to assure adequate indoor air quality.

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air leakage | blower door | ventilation | energy | indoor air quality | infiltration

This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary

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The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from structural insulated panel (SIP) materials were investigated.

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A study to measure indoor concentrations and emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde, was conducted in a new, unoccupied manufactured house installed at the Nati

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volatile organic compound (VOC) | air change rate | weather | emission rate | formaldehyde | indoor air quality | Manufactured house

Central tendency and upper limit concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured in indoor air are summarized and reviewed.

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Can lifestyle-based scenarios provide insight into the nature of energy use in our future buildings?

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The knowledge of how to ventilate buildings, and how much ventilation is necessary for human health and comfort, has evolved over centuries of trial and error.

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